#7 From paragraph to essay

From Paragraph to Essay

  •   Paragraph development by listing

A listing paragraph is a paragraph containing a series of connected ideas that relate to one main topic. This kind of paragraph has several parts. Firstly, paragraph introducers, both a topic introducer (which establishes the topic discussion) and a topic sentence (more narrowly defines or delimits the topic) or just a topic sentence. Secondly, supporting examples are listed with the aid of connectors. Sometimes transitions or modulators sentences are used between different sets of ideas, for instance: firstly, secondly, etc. Finally, a terminator sentence brings the paragraph to a logical conclusion.

 But Austen’s closest flirtation with death is the near miss: the almost fatal injury or illness that changes a character’s direction. It happens most memorably to young women whose high spirits propel them over the line of propriety. In “Sense and Sensibility,” Marianne Dashwood, betrayed by her inconstant lover, Willoughby, walks out in the wet after a rainstorm and contracts a virulent fever. In “Persuasion,” Louisa Musgrove sustains a serious blow to the head after a stunt meant to charm her apparent suitor, Captain Wentworth. Their deaths would have offered a certain kind of cautionary tale. Instead, the young women emerge from their convalescences more sober, more attentive to their misdeeds, better suited as life partners for two different, sober, attentive men.

This paragraph begins with  a topic introducer and  a topic sentence that delimit the main idea of the paragraph. After that, it continues with two examples which support the topic. In this case the transition or modulator between the first and the second example is a parallel construction ( In "..."+ name of the character). At the end, a terminator sentence that rounds up the idea of the paragraph.

Jones, Radhika (2017, July 13) "In Jane Austen’s Pages, Death Has No Dominion"  The New York Times.
  •    Paragraph development by examples
It is a kind of list paragraph in which example sentences closely support the topic sentence.
A significant way in which Tudor women demonstrated their influence over English politics was through their ability to direct dynastic disputes in their favour. Arguably, Margaret Beaufort was the archetypal powerful woman of the fifteenth century, owing to her commendable manipulation of political affairs in her fight to protect her son’s heirdom. For instance, in 1468 Margaret made considerable attempts to ingratiate herself with Edward IV, by entertaining the King at her husband Stafford’s hunting lodge near Guildford. The fact that Margaret was ‘dressed in a … gown of velvet [and] … was sitting [beside] the King … a symbol of authority’ signifies her growing political influence over the King’s affairs, which eventually enabled her to secure her son’s rightful inheritance and restore the House of Lancaster. Furthermore, in August 1483 amidst heightened tensions between the Lancastrians and the Yorkists in the War of the Roses, Margaret negotiated with Elizabeth Woodville for Henry Tudor’s marriage to Woodville’s eldest daughter Elizabeth of York. Margaret was aware that ‘[s]uch a marriage would gain Henry Yorkist loyalties … and greatly strengthen his position’ , whilst support amongst Edwardian Yorkists was also generated by Margaret’s coercion of Woodville to invite her husband’s acquaintances and former servants to endorse Henry’s cause. Margaret’s unrelenting persistence in realising her mission was directly linked to Henry Tudor’s victory in the Battle of Bosworth on 22nd June 1485 and consequent coronation on 30th October 1485, demonstrating her success in influencing English politics.

 Analysis: This paragraph begins with a topic introducer. It is followed by the topic sentence and continues with  the presentation of the  examples. The examples are introduced by: "For instance" and "Furthermore".The examples are in chronologycal  order. The paragraph ends with a terminator, which restates the topic.

 Source: website:http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/history/tudor-women/

  • Paragraph development by comparison
These paragraphs compare similar aspects or qualities of two subjects. The topic sentence states more specifically the basis of comparison. Two different procedures can be followed. The first one, an example related to one subject alternates with an example related to another subject. The second one, all examples of the first subject are listed together, followed by all examples of the second subject. Transitional sentences may play the role of changing  from one point of view to another, from one set of ideas to another or from one subject to another.

Noting that both Christianity and Islam have sub-religions that reflect cultural differences, frequently the most extreme of the sects becomes the primary source for shaping the public’s view of that religion. The public interpretation of religion directly stems from the negative stereotypes created by extremists dominating the media or public view. The relation between Pat Robertson, a far right evangelical Christian who began to define Christianity as a political power, and Saddam Hussein, who began to define Islam and use it as a political tool, is glaringly obvious to any observer not caught up in bias or prejudice. Islam and Christianity, along with other religions, are often used as reasons and support for any type of action that might be confrontational. Because of the nature of man, which naturally differs from one man to the next, there will never be universal acceptance of one religion within a culture, much less a world wide acceptance of a single set of beliefs. Most striking is the realization that what proves truly detrimental to each religion’s place in the public eye are the disparities that exist within the religions rather than those that exist between them, dispelling the illusion that religion acts as the unifying force that it had hoped to be.

Analysis:  There is a topic introducer and a topic sentence. In this case, there is a comparison between two religions: Christianity and Islam. The paragraph structure is an example related to one subject alternates with an example related to another subject. There is also a sentence that unify religios behaviour.
Source: website: https://www.uniassignment.com/essay-samples/theology/the-power-of-religion-in-culture-theology-religion-essay.php
  • Paragraph developmen by contrast
The purpose of these paragraphs is to point out differences between two subjects.The contrast may be in the same sentence or they may be in consecutive sentences. Words like: unlike, on the other hand, in contrast, etc., can be used.

According to Kabanoff (1981), power means many different things to different people. For some, power is seen as corrupt and for others, the more power they have, the more successful they feel. Five different types of power such as coercive, reward, legitimate, expert and referent affects one’s leadership capability of succeeding in a leadership role. Gandalf’s power showed the characteristics of expert power which comes from ones skill, experience or knowledge. Gandalf lived for many years and had a lot of experience and learnt wisely and inherited magical power therefore; he was teaching and training people good things and how to help each other. He never abused his knowledge or magical powers but instead sacrificed his life for the group at once without thinking twice. Whereas, Frodo had the power of bravery with a focussed and clever mind and these showed characteristics of legitimate power where power comes from having a position such as being the bearer of the ring (French & Raven, 1959). Even though he had a clear vision and heart, he at times abused his power of leadership and acted alone. He became selfish at times and wanted to become the bearer of the ring, trusted new friends over old friends and held secrets within himself by not telling anyone.
Analysis: This paragraph starts with a topic sentence. There are two instances of contrast. Contrast in the same sentence( For some, power is seen as corrupt and for others, the more power they have, the more successful they feel) and contrast in consecutive senteces, contrasting Frodo´s and Gandalf´s behaviour. The transitional word "Whereas" helps us to notice the contrast between this two characters.  In this case there is not a terminator sentece that rounds up the idea. This is also an HYBRID sample, it is a mixture of contrasting and listing paragraph with two examples that support the topic.  

  •  Paragraph development by definition
A definition paragraph describes, explains, or defines an unfamiliar term by relating that which is unknown to that which is already known. It makes use of techniques of comparison, contrast, and synthesis, often in combination.It normally ends with a sentence that summarises the distinctive features of the term being defined.

In contrast to COPD, the airflow limitation in asthma is usually fully reversible and not progressive. Asthma is defined by the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) as a “heterogeneous disease, usually characterized by chronic airway inflammation. It is defined by the history of respiratory symptoms such as wheeze, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough that vary over time and in intensity, together with variable expiratory airflow limitation”. The most common form of asthma is the allergic form. It occurs at a younger age and is less related to smoking status. Symptoms often occur at night or in the early morning. The distinction between asthma and COPD is difficult to make. Significant overlap exists and is called asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). GOLD and GINA describe ACOS as characterized by persistent airflow limitation with several features usually associated with asthma, such as stuffiness, wheezing, shortness of breath and nocturnal complaints, and several features usually associated with COPD, such as shortness of breath, cough, sputum production and fatigue. ACOS is therefore identified in clinical practice by the features that it shares with asthma and COPD, such as stuffiness, chronic cough and sputum production (5,7,8).

Analysis:In the paragraph the writer defines the term asthma. It starts with a topic sentence that contrast the COPD to asthma. Then the following sentence introduces the term to be defined. The writer gives a definition of the term from a source and he also gives examples of the common forms of the illness.Then he introduces a new term (ACOS) and defines it.It finishes comparing asthma, COPD and ACOS.

 Sourse: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/miscellaneous/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease/
  • Paragraph development by classification
It is important to set up adequate categories and equally important to define what goes into these categories. The purpose is to group a large number of items or ideas into a small number of classes.
Rock Music

There are three different types of rock music, alternative rock, classic rock, and hard rock, also known as metal. Alternative rock features a steady bass drum laying down the beat, with easy flowing guitar riffs over the top. The bass line is toned town, and the lyrics are sung with intensity an authority. Depending on the song, the guitars can either be acoustic guitars or electric guitars. Classic rock combines a steady driving bass drum sound, with high snare overtones, steady and often repeating guitar riffs, and an intensive bass line. The guitars are more often than not all electric guitars, and distortion is rarely used. The lyrics are sung with style and enthusiasm. Hard rock, or metal, features a hard rolling bass drum with an abundant amount of cymbal work. This style of rock uses several electric guitars with heavy distortion to bring a very intense sound. A hard, intense, driving bass line rounds out the style. The lyrics aren’t really sung so much as screamed. It doesn’t matter what your preference is, each different style of rock music is unique on its own.

 Analysis: The topic sentence is the first one. The paragraph is developed according to the examples, stating the features of the different types of rock. It finishes with a terminator sentence.
Source: http://english120.pbworks.com/w/page/)


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